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(The Atlantic)   The case for reparations: "In America there is a strange and powerful belief that if you stab a black person 10 times, the bleeding stops and the healing begins the moment the assailant drops the knife"   (theatlantic.com ) divider line
    More: Interesting, Massachusetts General Court, American racism, Valley Forge, humans, servitude, good behaviour, John Conyers, Manhattan Institute  
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11252 clicks; posted to Main » on 24 May 2014 at 10:58 PM (2 years ago)   |   Favorite    |   share:  Share on Twitter share via Email Share on Facebook   more»



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2014-05-25 03:29:39 AM  

kyrg: When blacks as a group have had their dignity taken away by liberal white guilt, starting with the Great Society era of welfare handouts, section 8 housing, affirmative action up todays EBT cards and encouraging the whole sale slaughter of their race through abortion, you're GD right there should be payback.

When you expect less of a people, when you convince them that they are unable to rise above their history and reenforce that thought by taking away the incentive to move up and out through hundreds of Governments programs, when you can persuade several generations to vote for the same party that promises deliverance, but in fact only perpetuates their status quo, then that is exactly what you are going to get.


I see angry racist white males are still up. Or Republicans. Same thing, really. WHY WON'T THEY VOTE FOR USE WHEN WE HATE THEM SO?

/Brown people and libs aren't responsible for you being a failure. You are.
 
2014-05-25 03:30:19 AM  

ox45tallboy: starsrift: The author laid the bulk of his argument on predatory banks, realtors, and other financial instruments, not the government.
Is there currently a law on the books - and being enforced, forget those curio laws that've never gotten revoked - that is positioned against African-Americans? I'm not aware of one.

Wat...


Like I said, the bulk of his argument. And for certain, the government enables businesses to be predatory, but that's capitalism and caveat emptor. It continues today with payday loan businesses, who again, largely prey on ghettos. But that's not the government.
 
2014-05-25 03:30:42 AM  

Waldo Pepper: well to be honest it is rather foolish for me to try and argue with you. you have the facts of your life on your side ;-) but let me just say and forgive me if i'm wrong. I assume you had good strong parents and that fact wouldn't change if you had been black. 

i agree with you that being black had you done something wrong there would be a great chance you would be in jail but if you had strong parents that might have been avoided and there is a chance that if you were black and your parents had the struggles of their being black in america maybe just maybe you would have avoided some of the mistake you made as a white person.


See there's the thing.  I'll bold it for you.

First:  "my life", well, I'm just giving you an anecdote that supports the statistical evidence in the sense that my anecdote is opposite to the statistic, except that my story is contrary in the fact that I'm white.

Now, you're right.  I haven't done anything wrong, except to be the normal lackadaisical teen.

My parents were strong parents.  But as you've seen from the evidence, my father had a criminal background.  Had he been held to the same standard as black parents nowadays, he would be deprived of financial stability, and despite any "strength" on his part, would have have been able to give me what I apparently needed to succeed.

And your third bolded point.  I didn't make any damned mistakes..  I'm stating that I, along with my siblings, are successful, despite our more or less average intelligence.  It very might well be the case that I and my siblings have experienced some sort of Triumph of the Will in that we've all moved into the upper middle class from our modest upbringings.

But it does not preclude the assertion that black people in similar situations have been denied the same opportunity in our time.  All evidence seems to indicate that that's exactly what's happened.
 
2014-05-25 03:32:30 AM  

log_jammin: log_jammin: Carousel Beast: Does he suggest Egypt should make reparation to the Jews for their long walk out of bondage?

Xetal: I have Jewish ancestry.  Some of my ancestors were made slaves by some of your ancestors a long time ago in Egypt.  I demand that I be compensated for my losses.

officeday: .Yes, the Egyptians paid "reparations" to the Hebrews when the left,


There is zero evidence that the the exodus happened or that ancient Egypt had Hebrew slaves.

and yes I know that no one cares, but it annoys me.


You know, the Bible is a historical record.

*smiles*
*ducks*
 
2014-05-25 03:33:02 AM  

kyrg: When blacks as a group have had their dignity taken away by liberal white guilt,


Which do you think is more destructive of the ability of a randomly chosen black person in 2014: the assault on their "dignity" that was the Great Society plan (a suite of programs most of which were gutted and left to rot on the roadside even before Johnson left office), or the assault on their ability to amass wealth by the FHA and every mortgager in the nation from 1900 until 1965?

Read. The. Farking. Article. Already.
 
2014-05-25 03:37:10 AM  

Waldo Pepper: Babwa Wawa: Waldo Pepper: She passed away 6 weeks ago, why do you want to know.

I'm merely curious because you seem to have issues with authority.

So, tell me about your mother.  How did she treat you?  Are you angry?

[i.imgur.com image 370x269]

wow not even a "sorry to hear about your mom passing" you just keep right on going with your attempt at humor.
i wasn't kidding that my Mom just passed.


You know, just saying, I don't believe a goddamned thing you've said in this entire thread.
 
2014-05-25 03:37:25 AM  

Waldo Pepper: wow not even a "sorry to hear about your mom passing" you just keep right on going with your attempt at humor. 

i wasn't kidding that my Mom just passed.


OK, I'm sorry, your mom died.  But I still want to know why you seem to dismiss academic research simply because it runs counter to the point you're making.

I'm also curious as to why you might want to use sympathy as a foil in your debating method.  This is a technique common to sociopaths.
 
2014-05-25 03:38:06 AM  
I benefited from black oppression. Fine. I probably don't have to go back more than seven generations to find out I exist because of rape.
 
2014-05-25 03:39:41 AM  

whidbey: You know, just saying, I don't believe a goddamned thing you've said in this entire thread.


Given my comment just upthread, I have to say I'm counting on it.  Otherwise I'd feel horrible.

OK, maybe not horrible.  Just a little twinge.  Like that shiver when you have to pee really bad.
 
2014-05-25 03:44:49 AM  
Since I'm a teeny-tiny bit Native American even though by appearances I'm whiter than white bread, I'd like about ten million dollars for all the land the white man stole from 'my people'.

If they want some form of reparations, then they should be asking for parity in education and opportunity so that poor people have something close to an equal chance of succeeding.
 
2014-05-25 03:47:22 AM  

ox45tallboy: In the article I read, the author expressed a conclusion - we should use Federal money to examine the results of centuries of Federal policy of slavery, followed by decades upon decades of institutionalized racism.


Except that he's already drawn his own conclusions, as included in the article. Granted, he didn't have Federal funds to draw upon in his research, and I've already noted his bias, but he does have some pretty solid statements backed by evidence.

 

ox45tallboy: By doing so, we might at least acknowledge it happened. We might also stumble upon some way of making it better.


It's possible. The metaphorical road he describes is pretty much one-way, while a more realistic one may have four lanes in that direction, there's at least one coming back. Any real improvement is going to require a massive cultural shift, multiple shifts really, in America, not just one particular racial segment of it. Most of it has net positive benefits, improving education, employment, and business opportunities would help everyone even if specifically meant to redress inequalities. But it's easy to see how a blunt approach could worsen race relations instead of improving them, by setting unrealistic short-term goals or demanding unreasonable short-term costs. All of that opens up opportunities for politicians of all stripes to pander for their own immediate gain at the cost of the long-term goals, and I can count the number of politicians in my lifetime who wouldn't do that on my thumbs. If I was missing both hands.
 
2014-05-25 03:48:02 AM  
This thread is farking hilarious. So many tears, so many white(ha!) knights on both sides. Oh so many warriors. Good entertainment for all.
 
2014-05-25 03:48:31 AM  

Befuddled: If they want some form of reparations, then they should be asking for parity in education and opportunity so that poor people have something close to an equal chance of succeeding.


And wouldn't it be weird if that were exactly the type of thing the author was calling for?
 
2014-05-25 03:49:21 AM  

Captain Dan: firefly212: As a gay guy... most black people still don't want me to have equal rights... so this whole "reparations" idea seems a bit off to me. They want to tell me who I can/can't marry, but I'm supposed to be working to make them feel better about how they aren't treated nicely enough.

/fark that.

1. Not all black people want to ban gay marriage; aggregate black opinion is split pretty evenly.  Collectively condemning black people based on the actions of some is illogical.

2. Part of being a good person is treating other people well even if they don't treat you well.  Even if every black person in the country opposed gay marriage, it would be immoral to take that as a warrant to treat them poorly.

3. Straight-gay relations are probably the template for the future of race relations.  As long as gays embraced a countercultural / "outside group" identity (for understandable reasons), they were never going to convince most people that they were as fully American as anyone else.  It's only in the past two decades, with the attempts to culturally normalize gay people - as patriotic and moral as straight people - that voter opinion really started shifting towards ending anti-gay discrimination.

It'll be tougher for black people to integrate, just because of economic reasons, but I think that once we get to the point where there's less talk about grievances and more about patriotism and inclusiveness, that's when recalcitrant white people will open their hearts to the real problems facing black people.


1. It's not split evenly, not even close. If you want to talk about not treating people monolithically, talk to the author, not me. I'm not the one who wrote about all black people first, I am just responding to the article. i'm not talking about condemning anyone, I'm saying i'm not going to go out of my way to be extra nice or treat black people any better than I would treat white people... just as i don't go out of my way to be extra nice to the southern baptists, or any other  group who, while a few members may be ok with me, generally are dicks when it comes to equal rights.

2.i don't treat anybody poorly. i don't treat anyone particularly well just on the grounds of race either, no matter what their race is... welcome to equality.

3. Gay people were always the way they are now, the difference isn't integration, and the fact you think that's what happened shows just how off-base you are. The difference was normal gays coming out of the closet and dispelling the myth that all gays are leather bears and drag queens. There were plenty of older gay guys just going about their day to day business, being normal as fark while being portrayed as "outside" or "counter-culture" by groups seeking to discredit them. The image you're thinking of had nothing to do with reality.

/Patriotism is dumb, you're not better than anyone because of what country you were born in. What helps African-Americans integrate is what helped every culture before them integrate... hating on the next guy. With the Italians, the Irish, and the African-Americans... it's the same story... find the next person to hate and join in.
 
2014-05-25 03:49:25 AM  

robohobo: This thread is farking hilarious. So many tears, so many white(ha!) knights on both sides. Oh so many warriors. Good entertainment for all.


Glad you could feel superior, dude.  Good night!
 
2014-05-25 03:59:44 AM  

Cpl.D: Never, in all the history if Fark threads, has one article made it so damned easy to tell, just from the comments, who has read the article, and who has not.


I'm not entirely sure about that. I mean, I read the article, which I displayed pretty thoroughly earlier, but there's a lot of comments on "how this is the most amazingist super thing ever written!" without so much as a hint of any awareness of the particulars, and they seem in even numbers (more or less) to the obvious DNRTFA "reparations for slavery, Noooooo!" comments. This entire thread is an example of Sturgeon's Law in action.

Which I suppose goes to my previous statement about the difficulty of actually having the conversation. Many say they want to have it, few actually contribute anything more than mindless cheerleading or pointless derision to any given viewpoint on it.
There's a poisonous way of thinking that wants to respond to any disagreement with a pithy trump card, a talking point, or a cartoon, to save themselves the difficulty of considering all sides of the matter. I disagree with some of Coates statements, but as a matter of degree not as matters of fact. I think his source overestimates the economic contributions of slavery and institutional racism, but not to the point where they aren't still a weighty factor to consider in his arguments for investment in eliminating the continued effects. More to the point, the moral factor is at least as weighty an argument, not out of some kind of "white guilt" but as an obligation to equally provide the benefits, opportunities, and responsibilities of our society to all of its members.
 
2014-05-25 03:59:55 AM  

Trocadero: /all y'all gots to go


See those rifles they're carrying?

They didn't build that.
 
2014-05-25 04:00:36 AM  

Waldo Pepper: I live in the real world and not a world of "studies". I will as a rule take what I have experienced first and then work from there.


So you have little respect for studies, to the point that you feel like delegitimizing them with quotes.  You know how everyone is always tricking you with "words" and "scientific method".  I really don't know what to say to this except that you sound, at least here in this thread, extremely closed minded and possibly clinically paranoid.

Waldo Pepper: Why is everyone so scared about talking about race and what the feel about it.


Well, clearly not everyone is scared about talking about race.  There's a whole sh*t-ton of people right here in this thread that obviously aren't afraid to talk about race.  Except, they might be reticent to agree with you - maybe that's your point.   You feel like lots of people agree with you, but they are simply afraid to say so.  See previous point w/r/t paranoia.
 
2014-05-25 04:00:52 AM  

vernonFL: OgreMagi: Fark your white guilt. I did nothing wrong and I'll be damned if I am forced to pay penance for something I did not do.

You, your parents, your grandparents, got better treatment and benefited from racism.

You as a person and your friends and family are where they are today in part because of institutional racism.

You did nothing wrong, but you were born into and grew up in and now live in a system that is skewed in your favor.


Where can I go so I don't have to feel guilty about being white?
 
2014-05-25 04:02:59 AM  

Babwa Wawa: So you have little respect for studies


Is this still about that single study mentioned earlier?
 
2014-05-25 04:08:24 AM  
eat da poo poo
 
2014-05-25 04:10:29 AM  
The best thing about this article is it separates the morons from thinking people so efficiently.
 
2014-05-25 04:12:31 AM  

Big Ramifications: eat da poo poo


It's somewhat sad, but also typical of Fark (or anywhere on the internet, for that matter), that this was not actually the worst or dumbest comment in the thread.
 
2014-05-25 04:13:24 AM  

Dr.Zom: The best thing about this article is it separates the morons from thinking people so efficiently.


It certainly cleaves the potato like a hammer. . .
 
2014-05-25 04:14:17 AM  

Boojum2k: Big Ramifications: eat da poo poo

It's somewhat sad, but also typical of Fark (or anywhere on the internet, for that matter), that this was not actually the worst or dumbest comment in the thread.


jesus was an extraterrestrial
 
2014-05-25 04:15:12 AM  

Boojum2k: Big Ramifications: eat da poo poo

It's somewhat sad, but also typical of Fark (or anywhere on the internet, for that matter), that this was not actually the worst or dumbest comment in the thread.


Also the 'eat da poo poo' guy was hilarious. The original black dude from africa guy. One of the better internet videos of the past few years. I wonder if he's ever been to Germany.
 
2014-05-25 04:16:14 AM  
Let's call this what it is. Black people want money - and they want it from the white man.

I've never met a black person that gave a crap about the turmoils of any other race. And I've also never met a black person that didn't think the white man owed him something.
 
2014-05-25 04:21:05 AM  

armor helix: Let's call this what it is. Black people want money - and they want it from the white man.

I've never met a black person that gave a crap about the turmoils of any other race. And I've also never met a black person that didn't think the white man owed him something.


I think everyone in this thread needs to undertake a viewing of NBC's late 80's-early 90's race soothing series 'A Different World'. Dwayne Wayne and his glasses were wise beyond their years. I recommend the LA Riots episode. Such masterful commentary.
 
2014-05-25 04:21:30 AM  
upload.wikimedia.org
RICE CRISPIE TREATS
 
2014-05-25 04:24:48 AM  

log_jammin: Boojum2k: Big Ramifications: eat da poo poo

It's somewhat sad, but also typical of Fark (or anywhere on the internet, for that matter), that this was not actually the worst or dumbest comment in the thread.

jesus was an extraterrestrial


Being black is warrior code.  You couldn't possibly understand.
 
2014-05-25 04:25:29 AM  

Babwa Wawa: The Southern Dandy: OK, so we should cut a check for $.01 to any black person.  I'm cool with that.  Not sure how that penny will be any different from the apology that was already issued by congress.

If you could possibly sit down and dedicate an hour or two to reading the article, you could understand the foundational issues.  In fact, the author doesn't talk about monetary damages - it's about structure, and by all available statistical evidence, the structural impediments to black advancement remain to this day.  (little nugget FTA - statistically, a white felon is as likely to get hired as a black person with a clean record).

Address those, and you'll get to the post-racial society you wish already existed.  And it could be done within a generation.

But hey, if you want to drag this out longer, that's fine.  Let your kids deal with it.  They might be more open minded than you.

Betep: 40 acres and a mule  DIVIDED BY (Babby Momma x Babby Daddy)= ?
 
the seventh of 13 children,

13 kids is just too damn many.

Wow.  This thread is full of crazy racists.  I'm going to bed.


Is 13 Jesus-Lovin Children by white folk insane?
Yes.  Yes it is.
Because you are a Fark Liberal Filled With Outrage and Guilt.
Somehow, I have a feeling that you would biatch about the Duggers and Honey-Boo-Boo.

But Thut teen chilluns with a black woman is OK!

You're a racist man.
 
2014-05-25 04:26:40 AM  

armor helix: Let's call this what it is. Black people want money - and they want it from the white man.


Well, they want opportunities, which lead to money, financial stability, the ability to endure a family disaster, and right now that does seem to be concentrated in "the white man" but I'm pretty sure they'll accept it in any case.

armor helix: I've never met a black person that gave a crap about the turmoils of any other race. And I've also never met a black person that didn't think the white man owed him something


Funnily enough, I've met many who do not meet your description. I've worked for, with, and over many people of all races, and most all of them just felt they were owed a fair chance. Get-over artists were pretty evenly represented among all races and genders, as a very small proportion of the total. I may not be or present an entirely representative sample, but it certainly does strongly imply that your statement is a result of either limited experience or perception.
 
2014-05-25 04:27:33 AM  

Betep: Babwa Wawa: The Southern Dandy: OK, so we should cut a check for $.01 to any black person.  I'm cool with that.  Not sure how that penny will be any different from the apology that was already issued by congress.

If you could possibly sit down and dedicate an hour or two to reading the article, you could understand the foundational issues.  In fact, the author doesn't talk about monetary damages - it's about structure, and by all available statistical evidence, the structural impediments to black advancement remain to this day.  (little nugget FTA - statistically, a white felon is as likely to get hired as a black person with a clean record).

Address those, and you'll get to the post-racial society you wish already existed.  And it could be done within a generation.

But hey, if you want to drag this out longer, that's fine.  Let your kids deal with it.  They might be more open minded than you.

Betep: 40 acres and a mule  DIVIDED BY (Babby Momma x Babby Daddy)= ?
 
the seventh of 13 children,

13 kids is just too damn many.

Wow.  This thread is full of crazy racists.  I'm going to bed.

Is 13 Jesus-Lovin Children by white folk insane?
Yes.  Yes it is.
Because you are a Fark Liberal Filled With Outrage and Guilt.
Somehow, I have a feeling that you would biatch about the Duggers and Honey-Boo-Boo.

But Thut teen chilluns with a black woman is OK!

You're a racist man.


I am not fluent in internet regard, someone care to translate for me?
 
2014-05-25 04:28:09 AM  

Betep: Babwa Wawa: The Southern Dandy: OK, so we should cut a check for $.01 to any black person.  I'm cool with that.  Not sure how that penny will be any different from the apology that was already issued by congress.

If you could possibly sit down and dedicate an hour or two to reading the article, you could understand the foundational issues.  In fact, the author doesn't talk about monetary damages - it's about structure, and by all available statistical evidence, the structural impediments to black advancement remain to this day.  (little nugget FTA - statistically, a white felon is as likely to get hired as a black person with a clean record).

Address those, and you'll get to the post-racial society you wish already existed.  And it could be done within a generation.

But hey, if you want to drag this out longer, that's fine.  Let your kids deal with it.  They might be more open minded than you.

Betep: 40 acres and a mule  DIVIDED BY (Babby Momma x Babby Daddy)= ?
 
the seventh of 13 children,

13 kids is just too damn many.

Wow.  This thread is full of crazy racists.  I'm going to bed.

Is 13 Jesus-Lovin Children by white folk insane?
Yes.  Yes it is.
Because you are a Fark Liberal Filled With Outrage and Guilt.
Somehow, I have a feeling that you would biatch about the Duggers and Honey-Boo-Boo.

But Thut teen chilluns with a black woman is OK!

You're a racist man.


I am not fluent in internet retard, someone care to translate for me?
 
2014-05-25 04:28:46 AM  

BlueDWarrior: I am not fluent in internet regard, someone care to translate for me?


Don't ask me, I'm trying to figure out if everyone else, myself, or the servers had the stroke, because someone did.
 
2014-05-25 04:29:17 AM  
Sorry pHone garbled up and I double posted
 
2014-05-25 04:34:27 AM  

Betep: Is 13 Jesus-Lovin Children by white folk insane?
Yes. Yes it is.
Because you are a Fark Liberal Filled With Outrage and Guilt.
Somehow, I have a feeling that you would biatch about the Duggers and Honey-Boo-Boo.

But Thut teen chilluns with a black woman is OK!

You're a racist man.


in my head, I read this in Allen Ginsberg's voice.
 
2014-05-25 04:37:37 AM  
I wonder, if a person is half black and half white, do they owe reparations to themselves?
 
2014-05-25 04:38:19 AM  
This thread just confirms my belief that the welfare queen is the most destructive modern caricature of Blacks, at least to me.
 
2014-05-25 04:39:45 AM  

Kurmudgeon: I wonder, if a person is half black and half white, do they owe reparations to themselves?


No because we aren't discussing reparations in terms of checks.
 
2014-05-25 04:40:38 AM  

Boojum2k: Big Ramifications: eat da poo poo

It's somewhat sad, but also typical of Fark (or anywhere on the internet, for that matter), that this was not actually the worst or dumbest comment in the thread.


Your comment literally made me LOL.

I smile a lot reading Fark, I rarely LOL. Cheers!
 
2014-05-25 04:40:44 AM  

Kurmudgeon: I wonder, if a person is half black and half white, do they owe reparations to themselves?


img.fark.net
 
2014-05-25 04:42:21 AM  
Basically, if you disagree with Babwa wawa about a racial issue, that makes you a racist.
 
2014-05-25 04:44:22 AM  

Big Ramifications: Boojum2k: Big Ramifications: eat da poo poo

It's somewhat sad, but also typical of Fark (or anywhere on the internet, for that matter), that this was not actually the worst or dumbest comment in the thread.

Your comment literally made me LOL.

I smile a lot reading Fark, I rarely LOL. Cheers!


Thanks! Heck, I didn't even know where it came from until the later comments. It just seemed so typically Fark, a completely random statement in the middle of a long thread. Finding the source just made it better.
 
2014-05-25 04:47:15 AM  

Waldo Pepper: BlueDWarrior: This thread just confirms my belief that the welfare queen is the most destructive modern caricature of Blacks, at least to me.

throw in the lazy drug dealing thug young black man who has father 3 or 4 babies with 3 or 4 different moms. 

Hollywood sure doesn't help matters much.


It hurts that general pop culture doesn't reward intelligence in financial terms.

I can go on at length about how I believe the media elite is balkanizing society.
 
2014-05-25 04:47:54 AM  

BlueDWarrior: No because we aren't discussing reparations in terms of checks.


So by reading the article, the banking system put the screws to a bunch of black people.
Make the banks pay if you can, stay specific, if you say the word "reparations", it clouds the issue.
Good luck, the banks have screwed a lot of folks.
 
2014-05-25 04:49:30 AM  

Waldo Pepper: BlueDWarrior: This thread just confirms my belief that the welfare queen is the most destructive modern caricature of Blacks, at least to me.

throw in the lazy drug dealing thug young black man who has father 3 or 4 babies with 3 or 4 different moms. 

Hollywood sure doesn't help matters much.


ionenewsone.files.wordpress.com

/LULZ!
 
2014-05-25 04:53:12 AM  
The article is well-written, and the indictments compelling, but the author stumbles every time he tries to tie it back into reparations, whether it is vaguely suggesting that reparations are a necessary part of acknowledgement of the nation's brutal history, or casually lumping reparations to black Americans with something like German reparations to Israel, or dismissing with a handwave any objection to paying for the crimes of long-dead ancestors. Oddly, despite all the specifics he goes into, the basic problem here IMO is treating the injury done to black Americans over the centuries as a monolithic evil, when really there are some aspects which very much lend themselves to discussion of reparations, and others where that's neither sensible nor productive.
 
2014-05-25 04:56:34 AM  
I don't care how well written it was... they aren't getting any of my money.  If you want money, do what I do. Go to work.


It's 3:30am on a Sunday and I just woke up because it's called a JOB. I don't really care for it, but it allowed me to buy a home, pay off my car, and do things I enjoy during my off time.


Random question:  if they suddenly got their freebie check, would I suddenly be "allowed" to use the N word like they do without fear of getting beaten up or killed? The double standard that exists there pisses me off, along with any racism exhibited by blacks automatically gets a free pass or swept under the rug.   Also:  you could give people millions of dollars and they will wind right back up in the poor house if they aren't smart enough to safe or exercise any self control.

I'd love to sit here and banter some more - but I have to go actually earn my money. You know, with that thing called a job. (and yes, I really do wake up at 3am for work, IT admin for a 24/7 facility)
 
2014-05-25 04:57:11 AM  
It was definitely a thought-provoking article, but there are a few issues I think should have been covered that weren't. Firstly, white people weren't the only slave-holders.  The first permanent slave in the US was a man named John Casor. Prior to Casor's enslavement, black people brought from Africa were indentured servants, with a servitude of seven years.  At the end of their servitude, they were given their freedom and 50 acres.  John Casor's indenture had been bought by a freed black man, who was given the legal right to extend the servitude indefinitely by the courts in 1654.  Thus, the first slave-owner in the colonies was black, rather than white.  This was not a completely isolated event, with several thousand black people being slave owners even in the 1800s. Additionally, Native Americans were also slave owners.

Secondly, just as all slave owners were not all white, all slaves were not all black.  At one point, Irish and Scottish indentured servants cost about 1/10 the price of a black slave or indentured servant. Because of the lower price, in many instances they were treated worse than black slaves. It can be argued that an indenture isn't the same as slavery, but when the owner of the indenture has the power of life and death, there's very little distinction.  Also, Native Americans were enslaved by Europeans throughout the Americas, with over 50,000 Native Americans from the Carolinas alone enslaved.

I believe that rather than direct reparations to black people or even "black communities" reparations should take the form of increased educational opportunities in ALL low-economic communities. These should be provided in conjunction with after-school centers, community gardens, and other such facilities that would both foster a sense of community and empower residents to provide for themselves. Give a man a fish and he'll eat for a day, teach him to fish and he'll be able to eat every day and all that.

I have ancestors who owned slaves. I have ancestors who were slaves. Because of this, I have a particularly keen interest in slavery, and am working on a project to track down descendants of some of the former slaves interviewed for the slave narrative project in the 1930's. (By the way, anyone interested in slavery in the US should definitely look into these for a first-hand account.) In the slave narratives, the difficulties of life after slavery are detailed, and it is truly appalling what some of these people had to endure, both during slavery and up until the 1930s when the interviews took place. One thing that I've found striking is that the educational level achieved by the children of the former slaves had a quite dramatic effect on the success of succeeding generations.  The greatest success story I've stumbled upon thus far is Augustus Askew.  Augustus was a blacksmith, his wife Irene a laundress. They scrimped and saved and managed to send their children to school. One of their daughters, Mamie, became a school teacher, the other, Gussie, married an engineer.  Gussie's son, Ira Madison, developed the rocket propulsion system still used by NASA.
 
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