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(Slate)   The only hysterical panic from Orson Welles' broadcast of War of the Worlds came from newspapers trying to slam radio, the new kid on the block   (slate.com) divider line 47
    More: Interesting, War of the Worlds, Orson Welles, The New York Hospital, CBS affiliates, Peter Bogdanovich, Oliver Platt, Radiolab, American Experience  
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3904 clicks; posted to Main » on 29 Oct 2013 at 7:50 AM (46 weeks ago)   |  Favorite    |   share:  Share on Twitter share via Email Share on Facebook   more»



47 Comments   (+0 »)
   
View Voting Results: Smartest and Funniest
 
2013-10-29 07:54:13 AM
"Next up on Eyewitless News: Are your children having cybersex on this newfangled Internet?! More pearl clutching at 11!"
 
2013-10-29 07:57:48 AM
In February 1949, Leonardo Paez and Eduardo Alcaraz produced a Spanish-language version of Welles's 1938 script for Radio Quito in Quito, Ecuador. The broadcast set off panic in the city. Police and fire brigades rushed out of town to engage the supposed alien invasion force. After it was revealed that the broadcast was fiction, the panic transformed into a riot. Hundreds attacked Radio Quito and El Comercio, a local newspaper that had participated in the hoax by publishing false reports of unidentified objects in the skies above Ecuador in the days preceding the broadcast. The riot resulted in at least seven deaths, including those of Paez's girlfriend and nephew. Paez moved to Venezuela after the incident.
 
2013-10-29 07:57:48 AM
The night the program aired, the C.E. Hooper ratings service telephoned 5,000 households for its national ratings survey. "To what program are you listening?"

"None. Some jackass called me up and started asking a lot of fool questions."
 
2013-10-29 07:59:25 AM
Orson Wells...that fat guy from the wine commercials?
 
2013-10-29 08:00:08 AM
So even in the halcyon days of yore, newspapers were less truthful than The Daily Show equivalent
 
2013-10-29 08:03:55 AM

rnatalie: Orson Wells...that fat guy from the wine commercials?


"We will sell no wine before you pay for it."
 
2013-10-29 08:06:06 AM
It's not my goddamn planet, understand monkey boy!
 
2013-10-29 08:06:18 AM
That's the story you already know-it's the narrative widely reprinted in academic textbooks and popular histories. With actors dramatizing the reaction of frightened audience members (based on contemporaneous letters), the new documentary, part of PBS's American Experience series, reinforces the notion that naïve Americans were terrorized by their radios back in 1938. So did  of NPR's Radiolab, which opened with the assertion that on Oct. 30, 1938, "The United States experienced a kind of mass hysteria that we've never seen before."

Ah, RadioLab -- the Malcolm Gladwell of NPR broadcasts.

It's a good show, but you have to take what you hear on it with a grain of salt, because they often focus more on the emotion of science than the facts.
 
d23 [TotalFark]
2013-10-29 08:07:33 AM
There is a problem here, though.  Wells did go back on the air after the broadcast to explain that it was a radio play.  I've heard a recording of that before on other documentaries.  The "mass panic" story is probably hyperbole, but it did cause enough phone calls for Wells to go back on the air the same night to say it was a radio play.
 
2013-10-29 08:08:53 AM
Why is this myth so alluring-why does it persist?

Something, maybe, about the gullibility of large segments of the population?

Email from: Uncle Frank
Re:FW:FW:FW:FW: Obama's Secret Plans Revealed

(Since we're talking history, I wonder if anyone was ever fooled by the 19th- and early 20th-century fad of fiction being written as "found manuscript" or written in the style of a naturalist's field notes.)
 
2013-10-29 08:09:49 AM

Fabric_Man: "Next up on Eyewitless News: Are your children having cybersex on this newfangled Internet?! More pearl clutching at 11!"


www.marketmenot.com

"We have ta get outta heahh!"
 
2013-10-29 08:15:35 AM
Yep. The same asshole who brought us the Spanish-American war and got the devil weed marijuana outlawed.
 
2013-10-29 08:27:10 AM
I know the article's author is trying to downplay the number of listeners that night, but the population of the US in 1938 was ~130 million.  Even if it was only 2% of radio listeners that night, that's still a buttload of people who heard it live.

Although I never really got the whole panic thing.  Even if you missed the announcement at the start that it was a play, the second half is pretty obviously a monologue.  So you might have panicked for 40 minutes tops.
 
2013-10-29 08:28:10 AM
What was the context of Welles' public explanation/apology that is sometimes shown in old TV footage? Wasn't it in front of Congress? Or is that another myth perpetuated over the years?
 
2013-10-29 08:33:49 AM
OtherLittleGuy


Luls,

Perfect!!
 
2013-10-29 08:34:17 AM
Probably the same panic I had coming in half way watching the mermaid docudrama.
 
2013-10-29 08:35:27 AM
www.movieactors.com
Not amused.
 
2013-10-29 08:35:28 AM
Wot are we gonna do tonight, bwain?
Same thing we do every night, Pinky. Try and take over the world!
I dunno, Bwain.  How are you gonna do it tonight?
With a plain so simple, even a low level radio producer could thing of it, Pinky.  I am going to broadcast a phony alien invasion and then, when the world is panic stricken, I will appear as their savior and the people will elect me ruler of the world!
Well, Bwain, you certainly have the face for radio!  Narf!
Quiet Pinky or I will be forced to injure you.  Now, I have prepared a transmitter that will broadcast my phony alien invasion to every radio in the world.  Pinky. Man the sound effects.  For we go live in five minutes!
Wot are we broadcasting now, Bwain?
Commercials, Pinky.  This stuff doesn't pay for itself.
(The Brain begins broadcasting)
People of Earth!  This is your faithful and always honest radio reporter here. I am at the sight of a meteor landing.  But my reporter's sense tells me there is something more sinister afoot.  This appears to be no ordinary meteor.  For I hear sounds coming from with in.  Devious sounds!  Oh no.  A portal has opened in the side and aliens with heat rays are bursting forth!  People are being vaporized!  vaporized right before me very eyes! Oh the carnage!
Uh, Bwain, I don't have a sound for 'carnage'.
Uh.   Oh the clatter of falling dishes; possible breaking
Good one, Bwain.
Can nothing stop these aliens?  Their weapons are impervious to ours!  They sweep our defenses aside.  Perhaps a leader could be found at the Acme Labs.  A leader with the brains and leadership ability to drive these aliens from our shores.  Quickly, survivors, rally to the Acme Labs and deliver your new leader, me! er, not me! to the failed leaders of the world.  This is your honest, truthful, non future world leader reporter signing off.
Good show, Bwain.  You had me on the edge of my seat.  But that's where I usually sit.
No matter, Pinky.  Soon, the masses will appear at this very lab and deliver me as their new leader!
(Large lady enters the lab in a panic)
Where is he?   (sees The Brain) Eeeek!  Aliens! (smashes The Brain with her purse and runs out)
(Dizzy) Good night America and all shrimps at sea.... (falls)
(Later)
Well, Pinky, it turns out that I underestimated the listenership of radio by a few billion.  Plus, the people in other countries that didn't speak English totally missed my intentions.  Although your sound effects carried Turkmenistan for some reason.
You lost El Salvador in the ratings to "Nightly Samba with Jesus de la Samba", Bwain.
No matter, Pinky.  Let us repair to our cage for we'll have a busy night on the morrow.
What are we gonna do then, Bwain.
Same thing we do every night, Pinky.  Try and take over the whirl.
Whirl, Bwain?
Pinky, must I remind you that I recently took a blow from a heavy purse?
 
2013-10-29 08:38:25 AM
media.egotvonline.com

Always required viewing in my household every Halloween time.
 
2013-10-29 08:42:05 AM

secularsage: That's the story you already know-it's the narrative widely reprinted in academic textbooks and popular histories. With actors dramatizing the reaction of frightened audience members (based on contemporaneous letters), the new documentary, part of PBS's American Experience series, reinforces the notion that naïve Americans were terrorized by their radios back in 1938. So did  of NPR's Radiolab, which opened with the assertion that on Oct. 30, 1938, "The United States experienced a kind of mass hysteria that we've never seen before."

Ah, RadioLab -- the Malcolm Gladwell of NPR broadcasts.

It's a good show, but you have to take what you hear on it with a grain of salt, because they often focus more on the emotion of science than the facts.


I hate RadioLab. Talking over someone and finishing other people's sentences is rude.
 
2013-10-29 08:44:35 AM

JMacPA: I know the article's author is trying to downplay the number of listeners that night, but the population of the US in 1938 was ~130 million.  Even if it was only 2% of radio listeners that night, that's still a buttload of people who heard it live.

Although I never really got the whole panic thing.  Even if you missed the announcement at the start that it was a play, the second half is pretty obviously a monologue.  So you might have panicked for 40 minutes tops.


Was there just the one radio station to listen to? Did people not turn to another station to see if the same thing was going on?
 
2013-10-29 08:44:55 AM

JMacPA: I know the article's author is trying to downplay the number of listeners that night, but the population of the US in 1938 was ~130 million.  Even if it was only 2% of radio listeners that night, that's still a buttload of people who heard it live.

Although I never really got the whole panic thing.  Even if you missed the announcement at the start that it was a play, the second half is pretty obviously a monologue.  So you might have panicked for 40 minutes tops.


Supposedly a lot of people didn't hear the second half of the program becuase they were busy panicking.
 
2013-10-29 08:50:05 AM

Mudd's woman: What was the context of Welles' public explanation/apology that is sometimes shown in old TV footage? Wasn't it in front of Congress? Or is that another myth perpetuated over the years?


I heard it the other day on the BBC. Classic sarcastic non-apology.
 
gja [TotalFark]
2013-10-29 08:50:12 AM

TV's Vinnie: [media.egotvonline.com image 600x390]

Always required viewing in my household every Halloween time.


Ahhhh, chuppa la bunga.
 
gja [TotalFark]
2013-10-29 08:51:04 AM

gja: TV's Vinnie: [media.egotvonline.com image 600x390]

Always required viewing in my household every Halloween time.

Ahhhh, chuppa la bunga.


www.wired.com
 
2013-10-29 08:51:36 AM
#martianinvasion #njinvasion and #wotw are trending!
 
2013-10-29 08:54:44 AM

JMacPA: Although I never really got the whole panic thing. Even if you missed the announcement at the start that it was a play, the second half is pretty obviously a monologue. So you might have panicked for 40 minutes tops.


This was explained on the BBC the other day too; the #1 show at the time was Edgar Bergen the radio ventriloquist(!) but it was a variety show so people channel surfed during the songs & ads. But only about a dozen people actually did panic, and most of them were in Grover's Mill itself. Also, there were evidently New Jersey hillbillies back then.
 
2013-10-29 09:02:29 AM

Tyrone Slothrop: JMacPA: I know the article's author is trying to downplay the number of listeners that night, but the population of the US in 1938 was ~130 million.  Even if it was only 2% of radio listeners that night, that's still a buttload of people who heard it live.

Although I never really got the whole panic thing.  Even if you missed the announcement at the start that it was a play, the second half is pretty obviously a monologue.  So you might have panicked for 40 minutes tops.

Supposedly a lot of people didn't hear the second half of the program becuase they were busy panicking

 packing to GTFO.

If you'd heard the bit on NPR the other night you'd be better prepared for class today.

NPR played a bit from the Well's play AND THEN they played a radio advisement from England (of the same timeframe)  about how to have your child evacuated from the city (London I suppose) and to send your child to school with their lunch, a change of underwear and their gas mask.  Edward R. Murrow was doing that presentation and it sounded exactly like the Mercury Theater's radio play.  Again, these pieces on the radio were playing of the same era.
It was a time of simmering fear.

You know-
Like now, if you live on a farm, in a rural state, and don't know anyone you didn't grow up with, and you watch FOX "News", and you fear people of color, and liberals, and Bears, and you have a homo-errotic affair with your 30-06, which here-to-fore was gender neutral.
That kind of fear.
Not to put too fine a point on it.
 
2013-10-29 09:10:21 AM
Must be Halloween week...

By far my favorite album growing up:

a1.vsoh.com

It was the only thing worth listening too at my grandparent's house.

People panicked because radio had never lied to them quite that convincingly before. Yes, the second half if basically a monologue, but the beginnings of the broadcast are very convincing in the way they cut into what seemed to be a normal radio broadcast. Anyone who missed the first few minutes of the radio play missed the obvious evidence that it wasn't real.
 
2013-10-29 09:42:03 AM

secularsage: It's a good show, but you have to take what you hear on it with a grain of salt, because they often focus more on the emotion of science than the facts.


That is the Liberal tradition. Emotion over facts, whether science or politics.
 
2013-10-29 09:58:33 AM

macadamnut: JMacPA: Although I never really got the whole panic thing. Even if you missed the announcement at the start that it was a play, the second half is pretty obviously a monologue. So you might have panicked for 40 minutes tops.

This was explained on the BBC the other day too; the #1 show at the time was Edgar Bergen the radio ventriloquist(!) but it was a variety show so people channel surfed during the songs & ads. But only about a dozen people actually did panic, and most of them were in Grover's Mill itself. Also, there were evidently New Jersey hillbillies back then.


The same thing actually happened with a BBC program itself called Ghost Watch.  It was a Halloween live thing where they were going to go in to an actual real haunted house and so on.  The very beginning of the show outright said that "This isn't real" and if you called the telephone number given a pre-recorded voice again told you it wasn't real and wished you a happy halloween.  Except... a popular program (probably Coronation Street) finished 5min after Ghost Watch had started so everyone missed the opening reveal.  Worse yet as people panicked they began dialing the number and melted the exchange so few people got to hear the pre-recorded message.

Due to a suicide of a retard attributed to watching the program it was banned for quite a while.
 
2013-10-29 10:39:27 AM
I was just in Louisiana last Christmas. My grandma, raised is Arkansas, and I were talking about this. A lot of people did panic - she herself drove to the nearest pay phone to call my grandad. She realized it was fake before she could get to one, though.
/csb
/not everywhere had a newspaper back in the day, and not everyone knew how to read them.
 
2013-10-29 10:46:04 AM
How many people even had telephones in 1938?
 
2013-10-29 10:49:24 AM
And now for the debunking of the debunking.

James Thurber describes the "War of the Worlds Panic" in his native Columbus, Ohio in his autobiographical book My Life and Hard Times.

The matter has been dealt with before. When we think of a National Panic today, we think of something so pervasive that almost no one could escape it. Radio wasn't that pervasive in 1938. Sure, it was everywhere from the Big Apple to the Boondoggles, but not everybody would be listening with the zombie-like attention that is given to cellphones and tablets today.

So there's that. Think small.

Second, the show was not broadcast everywhere in the nation. It was nation-wide but not very deep.

Because of these differences in coverage, the panic was intermittent but real because some listerners only caught the program in media res, which means they missed the cues that it was a drama and not a real news report. They had no way of checking up on this except to call the local police or Mabel at the phone company, and when people call the local police or Mabel .... right. It's a panic.

Did the radio station get calls? You betcha. Coincidentally, Jack Paar, the famous host of the Tonight Show was the guy who had to take those calls. He called the radio station manager for help but the radio station manager told him to calm down (Jack Paar was famous for getting upset and even crying on air). He said it was a tempest in a teapot. Because of this response, it ceased to be a tempest in a teapot and became a news flaps.

In Concrete, Washington (Americans used to love those industrial names, such as Petroleum Nasby) the power went out in an unrelated accident, leaving people unable to verify the news. This caused a local panic that was picked up by the news wires. The same sort of thing happened all over the country, but not everywhere in the country. The newspapers did, in fact, have a field day at radio's expense, with 12,500 plus articles published over the next couple of months starting with a front page article in the New York Times which served as an Imprimater for the rest of the media.

So, the real answer is that there was localized panic all over the nation, with some people fleeing their homes.

In fact, James Thurber pretty much got the story bang on, which is not surprising since he was a journalist and a humorist, a powerful combination for cutting through the flack.

In other words, the original was much better than the remake with Tom Cruise. On the other hand, the good movie version had a serious flaw in that it dragged religion into the happy ending in a way which betrayed the original author, H.G. Wells, who was an outspoken atheist. In this version (which is otherwise a lovely B-movie with some good but slow special effects) God saves Man once again with his Magical Sky Father powers, but in the original and even the Tom Cruise version, tiny little creatures that live in us (not Thetans, though) kill the big nasty monsters, which is ironic and all kinds of scientifically plausible.

Except, of course, that debunkers never say die (unless you say live).

There is a good chance that if we were invaded by aliens they'd be smart enough to have immunized themselves to our bacteria and viruses, etc., or else would have different body chemistry and would be naturally immune to our chemistry.

For example, amino acids exist in mirror image forms. All of us use the left-handed kind (as far as we know) while aliens might use the right-handed kind. If they did, they would not catch our diseases and would probably want to just sterilize the Earth and start over afresh with their own kind of chemistry.

In fact, there might even be "aliens" on the Earth now in the form of microbes that use the alternative chemistry and thus don't show up when we feed them, which is how you tend to find bacteria.

There couldn't be a lot of them, though, because we have a new and improved way of finding bacteria by sampling their DNA wholesale. Surely this would turn up a certain amount of right-handed DNA fragments unless I am wrong about that.
 
2013-10-29 11:05:11 AM
Orsen Welles is the guy that the Canadian voice actor, Maurice Lamarche, does so well. He is the model of the Brain and numerous other characters. Maurice Lamarche does a great impression of a famous incident where Welles lost it while doing a commercial for frozen peas. You can find Lamarche's version of Welles on the web.

His actorly and cultivated voice made him a favorite of voice actors so you hear his voice very frequently in cartoons. The Brain actually does at least one parody of a Welles movie role, The Third Man. In that movie Welles speaks the famous line about Switzerland having peace and democracy for 500 years and producing little more than the Coo-coo clock. This line may be popular with anti-democrats, but it isn't strictly true. Switzerland is a bastion of not only banking, chocolate and clock-making, but also high tech. It has produced far more than its tiny size (roughly the population of Quebec, a few million short of Florida) warrants.

I lived there and Switzerland is a wonderful country in which to be old and rich, or just rich. This is true of most countries, but in Switzerland it is true with bells on and lederhosen and alpen horns. If I had to name a country for old men, it would be Swizterland. In fact, one of their cantons only gave the vote to women in the 1990s. Talk about conservative peasants.
 
2013-10-29 11:14:00 AM

brantgoose: God saves Man once again with his Magical Sky Father powers, but in the original and even the Tom Cruise version, tiny little creatures that live in us (not Thetans, though) kill the big nasty monsters, which is ironic and all kinds of scientifically plausible.


Actually, that's the ending of the 1953 version also:

The Martians had no resistance to the bacteria in our atmosphere to which we have long since become immune. Once they had breathed our air, germs, which no longer affect us, began to kill them. The end came swiftly. All over the world, their machines began to stop and fall. After all that men could do had failed, the Martians were destroyed and humanity was saved by the littlest things, which God, in His wisdom, had put upon this Earth.

Other than the very last sentence, the film isn't really all that religulous.

There is a pastor who gets killed by the Martians early on, and a bunch of people congregate at a church for solace in the face of what they think is certain destruction, but given society in 1953, I'd be surprised if a film about the putative end of humanity didn't have some religious references in it.

What does get showcased a lot in that film, though, is science.  And in fact, the end has a scientific explanation:  The Martians contracted diseases for which they had no immunity.
 
2013-10-29 11:16:44 AM

JMacPA: I know the article's author is trying to downplay the number of listeners that night, but the population of the US in 1938 was ~130 million.  Even if it was only 2% of radio listeners that night, that's still a buttload of people who heard it live.

Although I never really got the whole panic thing.  Even if you missed the announcement at the start that it was a play, the second half is pretty obviously a monologue.  So you might have panicked for 40 minutes tops.


Remember the limitations of radio in those days--not a lot of on the spot reporting because even a normal radio set was a piece of furniture that weighed as much as a TV today and the portable equipment involved microphones that could be used as cudgels, and a set of car-battery-sized batteries.

Instead of a "news crew", radio still used guys with notebooks and big ole flash cameras, and the rest of the rig would require setup. As a minimum you'd need a strong man with a backpack full of batteries and a radio transmitter the size of a suitcase. News crews often did not have cars let alone helicopters.

Welles reading everything himself and reacting to the scene in front of him rather than interviewing everybody in sight would have been far more plausible then.

And let's face it, people were still naive by our standards. My Mother remembers when they used to show movies in the auditorium of the local high school (before television). The story of old codgers ducking when the train charges at the screen was still current. One of the first families to get television in the village charged ten cents admission to watch it. (The guy in question was a famous tightwad locally.) That was in the 1950s, when the village got electricity. In 1938, there'd be fifteen or twenty years less experience with radio, television and telephones in rural areas, even in the US which was richer and more advanced than rural Canada in those days (today it is sometimes the other way round--that same village has state-of-the-art digital telephone service with free voice mail and notifications from the police about emergencies and extreme weather now, as well as satellite TV and so forth).
 
2013-10-29 11:38:31 AM

brantgoose: Instead of a "news crew", radio still used guys with notebooks and big ole flash cameras,


i44.tinypic.com

Thanks for that on-the-spot report, Les. For those of you who've just tuned in, the Pinedale Shopping Mall has just been bombed with live turkeys. Film at eleven.

/Preview is my friend.
 
2013-10-29 11:39:14 AM

dittybopper: brantgoose: God saves Man once again with his Magical Sky Father powers, but in the original and even the Tom Cruise version, tiny little creatures that live in us (not Thetans, though) kill the big nasty monsters, which is ironic and all kinds of scientifically plausible.

Actually, that's the ending of the 1953 version also:

The Martians had no resistance to the bacteria in our atmosphere to which we have long since become immune. Once they had breathed our air, germs, which no longer affect us, began to kill them. The end came swiftly. All over the world, their machines began to stop and fall. After all that men could do had failed, the Martians were destroyed and humanity was saved by the littlest things, which God, in His wisdom, had put upon this Earth.

Other than the very last sentence, the film isn't really all that religulous.

There is a pastor who gets killed by the Martians early on, and a bunch of people congregate at a church for solace in the face of what they think is certain destruction, but given society in 1953, I'd be surprised if a film about the putative end of humanity didn't have some religious references in it.

What does get showcased a lot in that film, though, is science.  And in fact, the end has a scientific explanation:  The Martians contracted diseases for which they had no immunity.


Got a hotlink? LMAO....all these years reading fark and I actually did a double take. +1
 
2013-10-29 11:42:28 AM
It's kind of amusing that the writer of the article is trying to debunk the power of the media to influence people with fiction, by writing about how the media influenced people with false reports.
 
2013-10-29 12:11:33 PM

Ficoce: Got a hotlink? LMAO....all these years reading fark and I actually did a double take. +1


I'm certain that I have no idea what you are going on about
 
2013-10-29 12:34:29 PM

brantgoose: Maurice Lamarche does a great impression of a famous incident where Welles lost it while doing a commercial for frozen peas. You can find Lamarche's version of Welles on the web.


I was going to quote lines from that... but I don't want to spoil the humor.
 
2013-10-29 01:27:19 PM
i am listening to the news, you know, the invasion!
 
2013-10-29 01:37:14 PM
According to an editorial note in my small-town newspaper in 1938, nobody was disturbed by the broadcast, if people even heard it.

The newspaper reported this because it contacted the local telephone exchange, which itself reported no abnormal increase in volume of calls ... and this at a time when an ordinary police or fire siren would get folks buzzin'.
 
2013-10-29 03:17:20 PM

SubBass49: [www.movieactors.com image 537x459]
Not amused.


....with helpful image of what the mental state of the 4 people who were terrified was.
 
2013-10-29 05:03:13 PM

WelldeadLink: secularsage: It's a good show, but you have to take what you hear on it with a grain of salt, because they often focus more on the emotion of science than the facts.

That is the Liberal tradition. Emotion over facts, whether science or politics.


OOOOOOOHHH BURRRNNNNNNNNN
 
2013-10-29 05:24:06 PM
Now now for the debunking of the debunking of the debunking...

brantgoose: And now for the debunking of the debunking.

So there's that. Think small.

Second, the show was not broadcast everywhere in the nation. It was nation-wide but not very deep.

Because of these differences in coverage, the panic was intermittent, [redacted]which means they missed the cues that it was a drama and not a real news report. ... right. It's a panic.

In Concrete, Washington (Americans used to love those industrial names, such as Petroleum Nasby) the power went out in an unrelated accident, leaving people unable to verify the news. This caused a local panic that was picked up by the news wires.


The population of Concrete, Washington at the time of the broadcast was about 1000 people, mostly cement plant workers and hangers on. Being up in the hills on Hwy 20, a good distance from civilization in the shadow of Mount Baker. Of those 1000 people, approximately 10% actually was listening to the broadcast when the local substation blew up. And most of those running out with guns in hand were trying to protect their moonshine stills, a popular local industry, from revenuers, a local police sport. So, I'd say the report of panic was grossly over-done. I wonder how many more reports were newspapers trying to sell newspapers.
 
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